The Church Under Attack

The Church Under Attack

The Church Under Attack:
Five Hundred Years That Split the Church and Scattered the Flock
by Diane Moczar
(Sophia Institute Press, 2013)

In this sequel to her earlier book, Moczar discusses the changes of the 16th century onwards that challenged the integrity and survival of the Church. The general pattern was that in most places, the Church was squeezed out, notably even in France, the “eldest daughter of the Church”. The biggest challenges were dealing with political and social movements throughout Europe, as well as battling the Ottoman Turks, Protestantism and the onslaught of “modern” ideas. Needless to say, the Church was not always left in the best of positions at the end.

Massive social, economic and intellectual changes also emerged and I will focus more on the “intellectual” attacks in my summary because – “Ideas Have Consequences” (one of the book’s subtitles).

As always, even in the darkest times, the Lord to provides, even though His Hand may not be recognised all the time, and perhaps some of us still struggle to see Divine Providence behind the many tragic developments of modern history.

  1. The Busy 16th Century

Protestant Reformation, Catholic Counter-Reformation, Colonialism, Struggle with the Ottoman Turks

  • flourishing of the arts
  • the Council of Trent (1545-1563) and its “great codification of Catholic doctrine”
  • Persecution in strong Protestant areas such as Northern Germany, England and Puritan America and resulting efforts to protect the faith
  • Spanish colonisation of the Americas, presenting an interesting contrast to the English and Americans as colonial masters
  1. The 17th Century

The Scientific Revolution and its consequences

  • Historical approach to science: the study of “all of reality” based on the idea of “causes” (philosophy and theology, for example, were considered sciences); recognised the “distinction” (not “conflict”) between faith and reason
  • New approach: the study of material things, resulting in the eventual denial of any “nonmaterial cause”; the “how” (descriptive) was more important than the “why”

Persecution of Catholics in England and Ireland

  • “hedge schools” which held on to and maintained Catholic life and heritage

 The “classical” period in France

  • flourishing spirituality, mirroring the artistic achievements of the time
  • Saints Vincent de Paul, Francis de Sales, John Eudes, Margaret Mary Alacoque (but the failure of King Louis XIV to consecrate France to the Sacred Heart), Joseph Cupertino, Martin de Porres, Peter Claver, (just some of the more famous ones from this era)
  1. The 18th Century

The Enlightenment

  • search for the ultimate answers to life in the “laws of nature”
  • important features: liberalism, idealism, glorification of human nature, a utopian view of the future, atheism/deism (there was great interest in the occult during this period too)
  • rise of revolutionary ideas about society and government
  1. Revolutionary Catastrophe

The French Revolution

  • political model for Christendom since the 5th century: monarchy (with general recognition of its authority and legitimacy) + self-government of towns and villages
  • traditional view of revolution against legitimate authority: “a great evil”
  • traditional view of “rights”: “rights” are “counterparts of duties”

what the French Revolution brought in (as with the American Revolution):

  • “universal” rights that were “abstract”, compared to the traditional understanding of “rights”, and de-linked from any “social context” or “obligation”
  • Christian Brother Schools founded by St. John Baptist de La Salle
  1. Napoleon and After

The French Revolution and the Napoleonic era with the new catchwords: liberty, equality and fraternity

liberty – “rights of man”

equality – became the substitute for religion in Marxism

fraternity – became the basis for nationalism and “socialist brotherhoods”

  • clampdown on religious orders, thus disrupting their contribution to society in the areas of education, healthcare, care for the poor, etc
  • rise of Romanticism: renewed interest in preserving the past
  1. The 19th Century

Industrial Revolution

– social and economic upheaval with the decline of traditional livelihoods and unprecedented migration to cities

Darwinism and Marxism, which grew out of the Enlightenment obsession with science and the prevailing idea of “determinism”

  • Both the “struggle for survival”-“survival of the fittest” and the inevitability of class struggle ideas deny the role of Divine Providence and human free will
  1. The Late 19th Century

Socialist and Communist revolutionary movements all over Europe, including in France and Germany, and the rise of modernism

  • Saints Catherine Laboure, John Bosco, Anthony Mary Claret
Cathedral of the Sacred Heart of Jesus, Guangzhou (built in the 19th century)
  1. The Century of Total War: Part One

Modernism – “the compendium of all heresies”

  • many of these ideas were not exactly “modern” but rehashed ideas of the major heresies from the Middle Ages through the Reformation; what was “modern” was the idea that doctrine evolves (Darwin link) – what had happened with and to Protestantism had started creeping into the Catholic Church
  • Pope St. Pius X denounced this as man “substituting” himself for God
  • Fatima – Marian apparition like never before or after
  1. The Century of Total War: Part Two

Rise and spread of Communism; advocacy of eugenics and birth control even outside Germany (e.g. in the USA) and before the rise of Hitler

  • examples of perspectives of history, post World War II

initially – the term “holocaust” referred to the loss of life (about 50 million dead) caused by the Axis powers; later – the term was capitalised and referred exclusively to the killing of the Jews by Hitler

initially – it was publicly known that Jews appreciated what the Church had done to try to save them (and the chief rabbi of Rome was baptised after the war!); later (starting in the 1960s) – propaganda portrayed myths about the Church not doing what it could against Hitler or to prevent the killing of the Jews

  1. Postwar and Post-Cold War  

Persecution of Catholics in East Europe, China and other areas under the Communists, Vatican II (not covered in detail in this book)

Something interesting that I learnt was that when the old priests of the Soviet Union finally returned from prison or exile and were all ready to rebuild the Church and the faith, Vatican II had already taken place. How bewildering it must have been for them.

inside the Cathedral of the Sacred Heart of Jesus (Guangzhou) today

I didn’t know that many of the cherished ideas and concepts of today’s world have such an anti-Catholic history. The change in the way man viewed himself and his life, vis a vis others, the past and future, and existence, lies behind the modern world. All the major political, economic and social changes grew from there, everything “evolving” and seemingly spinning out of control.

I think that the Church and its teachings, on the other hand, need to remain a rock but being so practically invites very hard knocks (to put it mildly) and, because it is filled with human beings making choices and decisions for all sorts of reasons, the knocks have their consequences. “That is why ideas matter” (as Moczar says).

Still, God is with us. “The Church, after all, is Christ in the world, and He will not be vanquished.” (Moczar again)

Every time the Church is attacked, do we hear the Lord’s call?
Restore My Church

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The Scripture Source Book for Catholics

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The Scripture Source Book for Catholics
by Rev. Peter Klein
(Our Sunday Visitor Curriculum Division, 2008)

Simply put, this book is for Catholics who want to know more about Scripture. It explains the many aspects in which the Church is scriptural. Its two broad areas – Scripture from the Catholic perspective and Scripture in the life of the Catholic Church – are covered in seven chapters.

Scripture from the Catholic perspective

  1. Word of God – Revelation

God revealed Himself to Adam and Eve, then by His covenant with Noah, by His promise to Abraham, by His freeing of the Israelites from slavery through Moses and by the Incarnation of His Son, from Whom we receive the “ultimate” revelation of God’s Word. From then, it has been the responsibility of the missionary Church to transmit this divine revelation. This is done through Sacred Scripture and Tradition, what was handed down to the Apostles and through them. Along with Tradition and Sacred Scripture stands the Magisterium of the Church – “no prophecy of scripture is a matter of one’s own interpretation, because no prophecy ever came by human will, but men and women moved by the Holy Spirit spoke from God” (2 Peter 1:20).

  1. Words of People – Sacred Scripture

Klein notes that “Christianity is not first of all a religion of the book but of a person” and that for the early Christians, what was “canonical” was what Peter, James and Paul preached, “in continuity with what Jesus had proclaimed”.

After years of depending on oral tradition, people began to write and document so that the teachings could be passed down in a concrete and “accurate” way. The books of both the Old and New Testaments were put together by the communities and edited over many years.

Only “fragments” of written works date back to the time of the Exodus, and these include the Song of Miriam and the Song of Deborah. It was around the time of David’s establishment of his capital at Jerusalem (1000BC) that written records were produced in great earnest.

The earliest Christian Scriptures were the letters of Paul and the others, the first complete one being 1 Thessalonians (around AD50). A first version of the Gospel (Mark’s) emerged around AD70. By around the 300s, the 39-book Old Testament canons were “widely recognised” and by around 400, the 27-book New Testament was “generally accepted”.

There was also other early Christian literature, such as letters, sermons and the Didache.

  1. Book of Covenants – Moral formation in the Old and New Testaments

The Old Testament can “stand on its own” and it “prepares for the New”. The New Testament reveals the fulfilment of God’s divine plan and Jesus’ role in our salvation. Therefore, the Gospels are “the heart of all the Scriptures”. One significant thread that ties the Old and New Testaments is typology, by which Jesus (as well as other New Testament people or events) is revealed in the Old Testament through “types” or prefigurations.

  1. Journal of God’s People – The Word of God

The Church’s mission is: first and foremost, message (kerygma, coming from Sacred Scripture and Sacred Tradition), followed by fellowship (koinonia) and service (diakonia). The Church’s stewardship of the message includes translating, interpreting and analysing the Scriptures, and producing commentaries. Here, the Magisterium functions as “servant” of the word: “it teaches only what has been handed on to it… listens to it devoutly, guards it reverently and expounds it faithfully”.

Scripture in the Life of the Church

  1. The Lectionary – Liturgical catechesis

Scripture is organised in the Lectionary (“collection of readings”) for liturgical proclamation. The three-year cycle of Gospel readings for Sunday Masses provides a “semi continuous” reading of a particular Gospel in the assigned year. Scriptures specific to Advent/Christmas and Lent/Easter are thematically organised for those liturgical seasons.

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On top of this, Scripture features significantly throughout the Mass, from the first Sign of the Cross and greeting, to the end of Mass.

The sacraments are founded on Scripture and so “preaching of the Word is an essential part of the celebration of the sacraments”. Sacramentals, such as anointing, and the use of candles, incense and ashes, also have scriptural foundation.

  1. Prayer Book of the Church – Integration of daily prayer

The Liturgy of Hoursconsecrates to God the whole cycle of day and night, as it has done from early Christian times”. It includes hymns, antiphons, psalms, Gospel canticles, Scripture reading and prayers, with Fridays, Sundays as well as feast days and liturgical seasons given a “special character”.

  1. Light of the Faithful – Personal prayer life of the faithful

The Scriptures underlie devotions such as the Sacred Heart devotion, the Way of the Cross, Litanies, Holy Hours, Novenas and the mysteries of the Rosary. We are also encouraged to pray with Scripture. For example, we might use the Lectio Divina method (reading, meditation, responding, contemplation) or pray prayers from Scripture.

If you happen to read this reference book from cover to cover (which I did!) you will find yourself at the end of it at four very interesting appendices:
– The Four-fold sense of Scripture (literal, allegorical, moral, anagogical)
– Figures of speech in Scripture
– Words & phrases with a Scriptural origin or allusion
– A history of the translation of Scripture into English.

So much to learn!

God dwells in His Word
♫ How Lovely is Your Dwelling Place